Judo means "gentle way", and is a modern Japanese martial art (gendai budō) and combat sport, that originated in Japan in the late nineteenth century. Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the object is to either throw one's opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue one's opponent with a grappling manoeuvre, or force an opponent to submit by joint locking the elbow or by executing a choke. Strikes and thrusts (by hands and feet) — as well as weapons defences — are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms (kata) and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice (randori).
Ultimately, the philosophy and subsequent pedagogy developed for judo became the model for almost all modern Japanese martial arts that developed from "traditional" schools (koryū). In addition, the worldwide spread of judo has led to the development of a number of offshoots such as Sambo and Brazilian Jiu Jitsu. Practitioners of judo are called jūdōka.
While judo includes a variety of rolls, falls, throws, hold downs, chokes, joint-locks, and strikes, the primary focus is on throwing (nage-waza), and groundwork (ne-waza). Throws are divided in two groups of techniques, standing techniques (tachi-waza), and sacrifice techniques (sutemi-waza). Standing techniques are further divided into hand techniques (te-waza), hip techniques (koshi-waza), and foot and leg techniques (ashi-waza). Sacrifice techniques are divided into those in which the thrower falls directly backwards (ma-sutemi-waza), and those in which he falls onto his side (yoko-sutemi-waza).
The ground fighting techniques (ne-waza) are divided into attacks against the joints or joint locks (kansetsu-waza), strangleholds or chokeholds ( shime-waza), and holding or pinning techniques (osaekomi-waza).
A kind of sparring is practiced in judo, known as randori , meaning "free practice". In randori, two adversaries may attack each other with any judo throw or grappling technique. Striking techniques (atemi-waza) such as kicking and punching, along with knife and sword techniques are retained in the kata. This form of pedagogy is usually reserved for higher ranking practitioners (for instance, in the kime-no-kata), but are forbidden in contest, and usually prohibited in randori for reasons of safety. Also for reasons of safety, chokeholds, joint locking, and the sacrifice techniques are subject to age or rank restrictions. For example, in the United States one must be 13 or older to use chokeholds, and 16 or older to use armlocks.
In randori and tournament (shiai) practice, when an opponent successfully executes a chokehold or joint lock, one submits, or "taps out", by tapping the mat or one's opponent at least twice in a manner that clearly indicates the submission. When this occurs the match is over, the tapping player has lost, and the chokehold or joint lock ceases.
Most well-known Judoka in history: Masahiko Kimura, otherwise, know as the Judoka that beat Helio Gracie. See references for further details. See Gracie family historical recall of this bout in the book: The Gracie Way, by Kid Peligro.
Techniques Most Utilized in Full Contact Sanctioned Fighting Sports:
Remember Judo traditionally uses the gi to assist with it’s techniques. However these techniques also utilize your opponents momentum against them and the Judoka using changes in stance, hip action, and follow thru motion that can be used without a gi.
Osoto-gari (“Large Outer Reaping.”) : This very popular Judoka technique, this could be used to transition in to an Arm bar.
Sumi Gaeshi (“Corner Reversal.”) : This takedown/throw can be used to transition into side-mount or into another Arm bar.
Kosoto Gake (“Small Outside Hook.”) : Excellent throw to slam opponent on to his/her back to transition into submission or Full-mount.
Osoto Guruma (“Large Outer Wheel.”) : Very common throw used by MMA fighters when up against the cage. A throw that utilizes the sweeping, both legs of your opponent.
Uchi Makikomi (“Inner Wraparound.”) : A technique that utilizes your opponents gi for leverage for you to turn your back to the opponent and throw then to the ground in one quick motion. However, could be used without gi, by tying up an opponent’s arm to use for leverage and of course, Judoka use legs & hips to make the throw easier.
Morote Gari (“Two hand Reap.”) : This technique involves using both hands to wraparound your opponent and lift them, leading to slamming your opponent too the mat. Excellent for MMA.
Harai Makikomi (“Sweeping Wraparound.”) : This throw could lead to transitioning too an Arm bar, Kimura, or just control of an arm giving your opponent less to protect themselves from strikes.
Judo Techniques would complement the following fighting styles:
Judo can definitely add a ground game to Boxers, Kick boxers, and Muay Thai fighters. Complements Greco-Roman Wrestlers by giving them a greater arsenal of throws. Good for Brazilian Jiu Jitsu practitioners to build on to their skills and also help them learn too, defend against its techniques.